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The Academy of Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Surgery Cadaver Seminar

Mar 4 2022 09:18:29 PM

The Academy of Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Surgery Cadaver Seminar in Orlando Florida was a huge success this past weekend February 24-26th. Practical examinations were provided for many who strive for MIFAS Board Certification. The ABMSP booth supported the Academy and was well attended, with certification information provided by Association Manager Jenna Ayala, Dr. Neal Vichinsky and Dr Beth Pearce.

Dr TJ Ahn, Dr Rich Cowen and Dr Larry Kales all MIFAS Certified participated as faculty.

Over 85 doctors, exhibitors and world renown faculty from across the globe participated. Many doctors were new to the skill set, while others seasoned with years of experience shared pearls of wisdom and technique.

Among the field of national experts was Dr. TJ Ahn (Chicago) who lectured on shortening the learning curve of MIS Bunion technique, and Dr. Orlando Nunez (Coeur d’alene) who lectured on the Leventen formula for metatarsalgia resolution.

International experts Dr. Carmen Narranjo Ruiz from Spain, taught the decision cascade of hammertoe corrections while orthopedic surgeon Dr. Fernando Sancho Barroso from Mexico City offered insights on Hallux Various correction. The Canadian faculty included both Dr. Sheldon Nadal and Hartley Milchin both sharing their succesful bunionectomy techniques.

An honoring of the late Dr. Earl “Boots” Horowitz with a history of technique was showcased by Dr. Larry Kales (Hudson Tampa).

Dr. Michael Warshaw coding/billing expert, and Larry Koback DPM, Esq rounded out the field to provide legal recommendations for charting.

The power of MIFAS technique with value of board certification in the field was evident throughout the event.

The Academy of Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Surgery Cadaver Seminar
Dr. Neal Vichinsky, Dr Beth Pearce and Association Manager Jenna Ayala

Chicago 2021 MIFAS Event

Jul 29 2021 05:08:54 AM


TJ Ahn’s 2021 International MIFAS Cadaver Lab Workshop was yet again, a very impressive event held at the Orthopedic Learning Center in Rosemont, Illinois. Dr. Ahn (MIFAS diplomate # 001) successfully doubled the size of his learning group to nearly 70 participants, and 2 dozen faculty for this event despite the challenges of COVID over the past 18 months. His staff organized a seamless and incredibly successful event.

The legendary Dr. Steve Isham brought his expertise and support to this meeting. Canadian expert and speaker Dr. Hartley Miltchin was able to get a special waiver to attend, while other international speakers, Dr. Naranjo-Ruiz, Dr. Juanto, Dr. Benavides, Dr. Carbone, were “Zoomed” in for their presentations. We are proud that our MIFAS Board certified Diplomates Dr. Timothy Shea and Dr. Larry Kales participated as both speakers and lab faculty.

About two dozen candidates took the MIS practical exam in anticipation of board certification. Both novice and experienced minimally invasive foot and ankle surgeons from the US and around the globe participated to share knowledge, improve skills, and enhance business strategies. Dr. Ahn showcased his Mastermind strategies for doctors to remain financially viable in the rough seas of today’s medical economics.

ABMSP booth of the MIS..
ABMSP booth of the MIS “royalty” that gathered (Center Dr. Beth Pearce).(From left to right) Doctors TJ Ahn, Oscar Benavides (Past President of the Academy), Steve Isham and Borys Markewych.
Outstanding facility
Outstanding facility
International MIFAS CADAVER LAB Workshop, July 16-17, 2021
Dr. Steve Isham
Dr. Steve Isham
Distinguished Authors Series
The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions of the American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry or its Directors.

Limb Loss… Who Is Really to Blame?—The Patient? The Physician? The System?—Part 1


The author explores the causative factors.

Editor’s Note: This is the first of a two-part article.

What Is Amiss?

The discipline of limb preservation and salvage has spawned extraordinary innovations in both scientific and clinical applications, offering new hope for those seeking the benefits of the burgeoning state-of-the-art lower extremity amputation prevention platforms.

Wound treatment complexes are flourishing as well as access to them; research studies abound; extensive data is amassed; myriad public relations campaigns stimulate public awareness; training programs are expanding in depth and comprehensiveness, engendering an abundance of expertise and a wealth of information. Our understanding of underlying pathologies is unparalleled. Practical and user-friendly solutions to manage risk are at new heights (Figure 1).

Fig 1: Public relations campaign for Diabetes Awareness Month with Dr. Kenneth Rehm on NBC

Fig I: Public relations campaign for Diabetes Awareness Month with Dr. Kenneth Rehm on NBC

Why, then, are we still losing legs at an unsettling rate, even after all the advances in knowledge, technology, and the presence of thriving university centers of excellence with numerous wound healing facilities waging war against lower extremity amputations? How, then, can we justify the tepidity of the level of success we’re enduring? What is amiss?

After decades of decline, non-traumatic, diabetes related lower extremity amputations in the United States are now on the rise.

To retort, let’s query the contributory culpability of three debatable culprits in this scenario: the patient, the physician, and the system. Who is really to blame?

To add perspective, consider these facts: Non-traumatic amputations are not going away any time soon. There are around 200,000 non-traumatic lower extremity amputations that occur every year in the United States, leading to a current amputation prevalence of >2 million people; and these amputations are most commonly associated with vascular disease and diabetes.1

After decades of decline, non-traumatic, diabetes-related lower extremity amputations in the Unit States are now on the rise. After about a 40% decrease in amputation rate among those with diabetes between 2000 and 2009, a significant increase in limb loss with those that have diabetes took place between 2009 to 2015. This disturbing trend is particularly pronounced in young and middle-aged adults; but even those over 65 who have the liberal benefits provided by fee-for-service Medicare are not immune to this revelationary development. 2,3

In spite of many readily available state-of-the-art, innovative, evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that could be used to minimize risk factors, their implementation, utilization and compliance are disappointedly less than optimal, thereby increasing the burden of potential limb loss.

As an example, the literature points out that prompt identification and treatment of peripheral arterial disease, a major permissive factor for limb amputation in persons with diabetes, is vital to preventing limb loss in any population.4 However, these interventions, regretfully, are not employed as often as would be needed to mitigate these tragic outcomes. This only serves as an illustration of a critical failure in our system which applies equally to other permissive influences that threaten limbs (Figure 2).

figure 2

Figure 2: Permissive factors of lower extremity amputation for which interventions may not be employed to offer the patient optimum prevention of amputation opportunities

This breakdown demonstrates a lack of commitment to take advantage of the health care profession’s true limb preservation capabilities.5 People who are losing legs don’t necessarily have to! And a lot of these people do not even know they’re not getting the best care possible, or that there are other options available to them. If their insurance doesn’t cover something, it is rarely offered or even discussed with the patient. There is strong evidence that some patients don’t even have a fighting chance.6,7,8.9 If there is a treatment available that is better suited for that patient’s condition, they may not even be made aware of that, and thus they suffer with suboptimal care.

If their insurance doesn’t cover something, it is rarely offered or even discussed with the patient.

Physician Contributory Factors7

    1. The doctor may not have a high index of suspicion and recognize that a certain pathology exists and may not make applicable recommendations, or referral to specialists, or call for more advanced testing.
    2. The physician is making self-serving choices that are not necessarily the best ones for the patient.
    3. Physicians may be making therapeutic decisions based on outdated standards that may have been in vogue years ago while they were in training.
    4. The doctor has a limited scope of knowledge and is over his head in his treatment recommendations.
    5. The physician may be demonstrating implicit bias in his care of the patient.
    6. The patient may be a victim of insurance-based discrimination.

The physician may be making self-serving choices that are not necessarily the best ones for the patient.

Race and Ethnicity

As we continue our quest seeking a road to solutions, the pathways we might consider are numerous. As an example, the role that race and ethnicity play in the increased prevalence of limb loss and associated risk factors are often discussed in the literature.

In that regard, it is interesting to note that African-Americans are 4 times more likely to experience diabetes-related amputation than whites.2 In California, a Kaiser Health News analysis found that people who were Latino were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to undergo amputations related to diabetes.10

Often, inequalities are the key to the social, cultural, historical, economic and political determinants of health. This includes lack of access to nutritionally beneficial foods as well as the economic barriers to proper healthcare. Experts assert that these dynamics are at the core of what is purported to be a diabetes epidemic in various ethnic groups.11 Also, some sources speak of implicit bias on the part of the physician, or insurance-based discrimination that targets low-income demographics, which may coincide with race and ethnicity.9

African-Americans are 4 times more likely to experience diabetes-related amputation than whites

To that point, research studies demonstrate that those subject to racial and ethnic disparities, as well as persons living in poverty, may have less access to quality care, and are more subject to many risk factors associated with amputation.10 While each individual risk factor is increased in these circumstances; as multiple comorbidities merge, the threat of lower extremity amputation is compounded, and additionally becomes markedly enhanced when linked to numerous other weighty challenges that might be subtler in nature and not easily identifiable or measureable. These other factors, overt and covert, should be considered when adjudicating the amount and differences in pathology seen in various demographics. A broad brush approach designating definitive etiologies of lower extremity amputation might lead to an oversimplified understanding, when these elusive influences are not considered.10

Other Cultural Factors

Very often, there are social and psychologic stressors that come in to play which need to addressed, but often aren’t.12 Further, the genetics of race and ethnicity play a significant role in the etiology of diabetic foot disease.13

In addition, the importance of geography, culturally inspired lifestyle patterns, backgrounds, traditions, customs, belief systems, and how they interplay with the other determinative factors, cannot be overstated. Some sources site cultural habits and customs as a critical roadblock to the nutritional requirements of glycemic control. therefore fostering vascular disease, neuropathy and a amhigher prevalence of limb loss. Various traditional ingrained practices, including those that involve dietary customs, create unique atmospheres through which the person with diabetes must navigate. After all, in many cultures, the importance of family gatherings and their dietary traditions are central to the core of life’s meaning.

One research paper points out substantial cultural influences on dietary habits in four distinct populations, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific and South Asian as a contributing factor in uncontrolled diabetes, a major risk factor for lower extremity amputations.14

Another study of indigenous populations, including Native Americans, concludes that the causes of the explosion of diabetes and its associated risk factors in indigenous populations are not completely understood, although it is likely that a complex mix of genetics, lifestyle and cultural factors, and psychosocial stressors are pivotal factors.15

This author’s personal experiences at the Diabetic Foot Clinic in Jackson, Mississippi, the Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center at the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital in Carville, Louisiana16 as well as in rural central Florida will testify to FOOTthe frustration tied to managing diabetic foot ulcers in a predominantly African-American population, comprised of individuals strongly tied to cultural dietary customs (Figure 3). The same ethnic bonds were encountered through years of podiatric medical and surgical practice in strongly Hispanic communities around San Diego, Escondido and El Centro, California. After gaining a profound understanding of the depth of the roots planted in robust traditions, one can confidently state that it is extremely difficult to change one’s culturally inspired lifestyle habits, unless the person experiences a critical event or undergoes a paradigm shift that arises from life events, a trusted support system or counseling.5

Figure 3

Figure 3: A typical Southern meal with approximately 1500 calories and one third of those are from fat (from estimates made by private dieticians)

Falls and Errors

One would be amiss if this discussion did not include falls as a risk factor for amputations in persons with diabetes (Figure 4). Simply, infections and injuries sustained after a fall certainly place that person at a higher risk for amputation of not one but both lower extremities, and even higher if that person has had a previous ulceration or minor amputation.17 Moreover, once anyone has had a previous major amputation of one limb, the magnitude of threat of another fall, further injury and amputation on the contralateral limb, is exponentially compounded.18

Infections and injuries sustained after a fall certainly place that person at a higher risk for amputation of not one but both lower extremities.

Figure 4: Risk factors for falls inherent in persons with diabetes

Figure 4: Risk factors for falls inherent in persons with diabetes

Another understated and often overlooked route leading to lower extremity amputation is medical error. There are two primary categories of medical mistakes that account for over 90% of all leg amputations seen in malpractice cases: 1) surgical errors; and 2) missed diagnoses or failure to diagnose.10

The goal of this paper is to identify those causative factors of this insidious disease; learn about how to control its pathological intermingling and thereby prevent unfortunate outcomes, such as lower extremity amputation. What control, then, do the patient, the doctor and the system have over this devastating enigma, and what are the possible solutions?

The Doctor-Patient Relationship

To answer these questions, it’s appropriate to first evaluate the doctor-patient relationship, the key to whether there is to be a successful clinical outcome. Establishing this connection between doctor and patient is critical to a therapeutic relationship and is very complex. There are many barriers to surmount for both patient and physician if the rapport established is to be effective and can support optimum patient care. More and more hurdles evolve as mounting paperwork, bureaucratic hassles, and reimbursement challenges become part of our clinical experience.19

This is a call for both patient and doctor to conjure up all their patience, resilience, and ability to reframe and to understand each other’s situation.

Establishing this connection between doctor and patient is critical to a therapeutic relationship and is very complex.

The Patient’s Perspective

The doctor must realize that this is not a pleasant experience for the patient. People usually hate going to doctors. They fear they will be embarrassed, judged, intimidated and confused. They dread the possibility of finding out something that will leave doubt in their minds; and they’re afraid they will not be able to ask the appropriate questions.

On top of that, they’re frustrated and tired. They waited at the front desk to be checked in. Then they waited in the waiting room. Then they are escorted to the exam room where the nurse/ assistant takes the vital signs and asks the same repetitive, obligatory, cursory and sometimes irrelevant questions. Then the patient waits some more while they’re trying to remember the questions they want answered, figuring how to ask them, and wondering if there will be an opportunity to explore all these concerns. Finally, and usually much after their scheduled appointment time, the doctor walks in the room.

The Physician’s Perspective

You work in a modern healthcare facility with all the up-to-date equipment and information technology. The medical assistant interviews the patients before you get into the room. The background information needed and the questions routinely asked are only peripherally relevant to the patient’s chief complaint. The amount of time spent on non-essential and meaningless protocols, in place only to comply with insurance, reimbursement and socially mandated requirements, takes away from the productive time that could otherwise be spent with the patient. There are requirements as to how many people you need to see in an allotted period of time, hence constricting the amount of time to be spent with each. You have to cram your history and exam to fit the administrative constraints. It feels rushed and incomplete. On top of that, the patient asked for the soonest appointment available but now arrived 30 minutes late. The patient missed his last appointment and now shows up with a limb-threatening new problem that could possibly have been avoided. He noticed it a few days ago but didn’t call because his foot did not hurt. As you question the course of events that led up to this, you discover the patient did not wear his diabetic shoes and inserts as instructed, but he chose to wear street shoes instead, for whatever reason. He disclosed that his blood sugars have been extremely high, but he knew why. He has been eating foods he’s not supposed to, in spite of being advised on multiple occasions by multiple providers that this type of diet is patently prohibited. He hasn’t seen the physician that’s treating his diabetes, and is not taking his medications as directed.

Most podiatric physicians would, understandably so, throw up their hands in exasperation. It’s like the doctor cares more about their health than the patient does.

The patient wants to be listened to, understood, respected, accepted, have confidence, feel safe, appreciated and have clarity as to what the doctor is saying as well as the goals and outcome of the visit.

But is this non-compliance and non-adherence part of the clinical profile that we as providers of diabetic foot medicine should be willing and able to recognize and treat? Or do we turn a blind eye and blame the patient?

You proceed to order an M.R.I. and write a prescription for medication that you know will work for the patient’s complaint; but you are told subsequently that the insurance doesn’t cover those requests. Consequently, you are asked to do more paperwork, which is an additional demand on your time, while causing the patient to suffer with an unresolved problem even longer than they really should.

After all this stress, you now have to be a skilled clinician who is part psychologist and part coach to establish rapport with the patient. This requires, among other talents, a proficiency in communicating with the patient, a skill set not often emphasized in medical school, but is being touted as one of the most important skills critical to optimum patient care.20

To be effective and the kind of doctor you would want to go to, you need to reframe everything around you, such that every fiber in your being and every facet of your presentation tells the patient that you are there for them, and at that moment nothing else matters. The patient wants to be listened to, understood, respected, accepted, have confidence, feel safe, appreciated and have clarity as to what the doctor is saying as well as the goals and outcome of the visit. In the words of Teddy Roosevelt: “People don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care…”

People don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care.

Understanding this is a major step toward establishing or maintaining a meaningful relationship with the patient. Show gratitude, humility, genuine empathy, be a good listener and strive for flawless communication. A little humor goes along way, too, in putting the patient at ease and making them feel the doctor is a real person.21 (Figure 5)

Figure 5: Important underlying considerations of a doctor-patient encounter adapted from a talk to the SLE workshop at the Hospital for Special Surgery by Juliette Kleinman LCSW, ACSW

Figure 5: Important underlying considerations of a doctor-patient encounter adapted from a talk to the SLE workshop at the Hospital for Special Surgery by Juliette Kleinman LCSW, ACSW

Out of this comes trust, confidence, and a mutually beneficial therapeutic bond, all essential elements to a successful healing encounter. The patient will now feel comfortable and be willing to self-disclose, allowing for a more meaningful diagnosis and treatment plan. The success of your treatment all depends on your interaction with the patient; and how you communicate what you know, what you think, what you feel and who you are.


  1. Microvascular Disease Increases Amputation In Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease. Adam Behroozian, Joshua A. Beckman.Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, And Vascular Biology. 2020;40:534–540
  2. Resurgence Of Diabetes-Related Nontraumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation In The Young And Middle-Aged Adult U.S. Population. Geiss Ls, Li Y, Hora I, Albright A, Rolka D, Gregg Ew. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan;42(1):50-54
  3. National- And State-Level Trends In Nontraumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation Among U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries With Diabetes Diabetes, 2000–2017. Jessica L. Harding, Linda J. Andes, Deborah B. Rolka, Giuseppina Imperatore, Edward W. Gregg, Yanfeng Li, Ann Albright. Diabetes Care 2020 Jul; Dc200586.
  4. Reducing Nontraumatic Lower-Extremity Amputations By 20% By 2030: Time To Get To Our Feet: A Policy Statement From The American Heart Association. Mark A. Creager, Kunihiro Matsushita, Shipra Arya, Joshua A. Beckman, Sue Duval, Philip P. Goodney, J. Antonio T. Gutierrez, John A. Kaufman, Karen E. Joynt Maddox,Amy W. Pollak, Aruna D. Pradhan, Laurie P. Whitsel. On Behalf Of The American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee. Originally Published 25 Mar 2021. Circulation. 2021;143:E875–E891
  5. Ethnic, Racial And Hereditary Influences In Diabetes. Kenneth B. Rehm, DPM. Podiatry Management Magazine. November, December 2018
  6. Health Care Myth Busters: Is There A High Degree Of Scientific Certainty In Modern Medicine? Sanjaya Kumar, David B. Nash. Scientific American March 25, 2011
  7. How Does Implicit Bias By Physicians Affect Patients’ Health Care? Research Is Exploring How Specific Factors Affect Patients’ Perception Of Treatment. Tori Deangelis. Journal American Psychological Association March 2019, Vol 50, No. 3
  8. Implicit Bias In Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review. Chloë Fitzgerald And Samia Hurst. Bmc Med Ethics. 2017; 18: 19. Published Online 2017 Mar 1.
  9. Reports Of Insurance-Based Discrimination In Health Care And Its Association With Access To Care. Xinxin Han, Ms, Kathleen Thiede Call, Phd, Jessie Kemmick Pintor, Mph, Giovann Alarcon-Espinoza, Ba, And Alisha Baines Simon, Ms. Am J Public Health. 2015 July; 105(Suppl 3): S517–S525. Published Online 2015 July.
  10. Relative Contributions Of Socioeconomic, Local Environmental, Psychosocial, Lifestyle/Behavioral, Biophysiological, And Ancestral Factors To Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Type 2 Diabetes. Rebecca S Piccolo1, S V Subramanian2, Neil Pearce3, Jose C Florez4, John B Mckinlay5. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jul;39(7):1208-17
  11. Diabetic Amputations A ‘Shameful Metric’ Of Inadequate Care. Anna Gorman. Kaiser Health News. May 1, 2019
  12. Doctoring Through The Complex Mindset Of The Diabetic And Neuro-Insensitive Patient. Kenneth B. Rehm, DPM. Podiatry Management Magazine. November/December 2015
  13. Relation Of Lower-Extremity Amputation To All-Cause And Cardiovascular Disease Mortality In American Indians The Strong Heart Study. Helaine E. Resnick, Phd, Mph1, Elizabeth A. Carter, Mph1, Robert Lindsay, Mb, Phd1, Susan J. Henly, Phd, Rn2, Frederick K. Ness, Md3, Thomas K. Welty, Md4, Elisa T. Lee, Phd5, Barbara V. Howard, Phd1. Epidemiology/Health Services/Psychosocial Research.Diabetes Care 27:1286–1293, 2004
  14. Understanding Cultural Influences On Dietary Habits In Asian, Middle Eastern, And Latino Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Review Of Current Literature And Future Directions. Mora, N., Golden, S.H. Curr Diab Rep 17, 126 (2017). 23 October 2017
  15. Diabetes In Indigenous Peoples. Anthony J. Hanley, Phd. Medscape Diabetes & Endocrinology. Saturday, August 21, 2021.
  16. The Carville Experience. An Interview With Dr. Ken Rehm, Robert Snyder, DPM. Podiatry Management Magazine. April/May 2007.
  17. Incidence Of Falls, Risk Factors For Falls, And Fall-Related Fractures In Individuals With Diabetes And A Prior Foot Ulcer. Wallace C, Reiber Ge, Lemaster J, Smith Dg, Sullivan K, Hayes S, Vath C. Diabetes Care. 2002 Nov;25(11):1983-6.
  18. Understanding The Relationship Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Falls In Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study. Roman De Mettelinge, Tine Et Al. Plos One Vol. 8,6 E67055. 25 Jun. 2013,
  19. Ama Data: Physicians In Private Practice Continue To Decline. Christopher Cheney. Healthleaders Magazine. May 10, 2021
  20. Five Skills Medical Students Should Have. Guragai M, Mandal D. Jnma J Nepal Med Assoc. 2020;58(224):269-271. Published 2020 Apr 30.
  21. Health Literacy: How To Communicate With Your Healthcare Team. Adapted From A Talk To The Sle Workshop At Hospital For Special Surgery. By Juliette Kleinman, LCSW, Senior Manager, Social Work Programs at HHS.

Author Biography

Dr. Rehm is a Diplomate, American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry and Medical Director of Neighborhood Healthcare’s Division of Podiatry. He is Assistant Clinical Professor at the California School of Podiatric Medicine and CEO Dr. Rehm Remedies, division of KBR Health Products, Inc.

Champions Blog

The Birth of Podiatric Sports Medicine: The Academy and Now Board Certification

A number of important figures present and past have made possible the new podiatric sports medicine certification.


The long-awaited board certification in podiatric sports medicine is now available to all doctors who want a valuable credential allowing them to declare that they are a qualified podiatric specialist in sports medicine. It has been a long and interesting journey involving two unique organizations and a host of talented individuals. Here is the full story… highlighting those whose contributions made it possible.

The 1970’s brought about the birth of podiatric sports medicine. The impetus for most of the interest in sports medicine by podiatrists back then arose out of the running boom and the development of the American Association of Podiatric Sports Medicine. Doctors George Sheehan, Robert Barnes, George Pagliano, Richard Gilbert and Steven Subotnik brought the role of the podiatrist in sports medicine to national attention.

The momentum they created has not stopped; and now the field is in full bloom where physicians such as Dr. Jeff Ross merges his expertise in diabetic foot medicine and surgery with biomechanics and sports medicine, culminating in an efficacious bridging of podiatry with collegiate and high-school sports. Dr. Ross served as team podiatric physician for the Baylor University football team and is a consultant for the University of Houston track team, while also playing an active role in high school sports. Adding to his credentials and fueled by his intense love for skiing, his in-depth research defined its biomechanics. His incredible passion was a driving force that propelled podiatric sports medicine to the pinnacle of recognition and the establishment of the highly anticipated board certification by the American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry (ABMSP).

“Dr. Richard Gilbert, podiatrist to the San Diego Chargers, was a pioneer in the development of the AAPSM.”

The Trailblazers
The idea of a board certification in podiatric sports medicine was initially seeded by the esteemed Dr. Richard Gilbert (Figure 1), pioneer in the development of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine (AAPSM) and podiatrist to the San Diego Chargers. His powerful motivation was to unite the various avenues of podiatric medicine and surgery through an amalgamation of talents vital to forming a complete spectrum of podiatric sports medicine expertise, where trained DPMs could interchange ideas and knowledge with seasoned professionals.
Arguably, the first podiatric sports medicine celebrity was Dr. Steve Subotnik, an athlete himself who was featured in Runner’s World.

Figure 1: Richard Gilbert, DPM, The Father of Podiatric Sports Medicine

Magazine and author of The Running Foot Doctor (Figure 2). Because of his groundbreaking work in surgery, biomechanics and sports medicine, Dr. Subotnik was possibly the single most influential force in putting podiatry on the map. He cut his “sports medicine teeth” as a professor at the California College of Podiatric Medicine where he taught surgery and biomechanics. This period of his 50-plus year career was especially gratifying to him, particularly when established doctors, who were students of his in those fledgling years, came up to him at meetings and told him what an impact he had on their career.

Dr Subotnik’s sports medicine career rocketed when he became a marathon runner, and his intense involvement and resulting contributions brought the podiatry profession new recognition and acceptance. His notable cabal included health-related celebrities such as Dr. George Sheehan, a cardiologist who became the legendary philosopher of the recreational running movement in the 1970’s and 1980’s.

For years, Dr.Subotnik, one of the founding fathers of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine, felt that board certification in podiatric sports medicine would take this specialty to the next level, as it separates the spectators from the players. His commitment to board certification was key to the formation of the new certification by The ABMSP. Dr. Subotnik states: “Sports medicine helps define modern podiatry because biomechanics is the defining factor in podiatry and is also an integral part of sports medicine. The podiatric practice of sports medicine is so important, now more than ever, because it will continue to keep podiatry on the map; because through biomechanics we can make a real difference.” He goes on to say, “Once you’re an athlete who sustains a foot injury, and being active is part of your life, you will seek the help of a sports medicine podiatrist at any cost, regardless of any bureaucratic or insurance limitations.”
His driving philosophy summarizes the importance of the foot and its biomechanics: “Controlling the feet controls the rest of the body”, which is philosophically apropos coming from this champion podiatric sports physician.

“Arguably, the first podiatric sports medicine celebrity was Dr. Steve Subotnik, an athlete himself.”

The Protégés
From these trailblazers came their protégés who turned out to be the innovative architects of modern podiatric sports medicine. A key figure is Dr. Tim Dutra, who has advanced the traditional teachings as well as integrated this established doctrine with up-to-date sophisticated computerized gait and motion lab analysis of the athlete. His position as an assistant professor and clinical investigator at Samuel Merritt University allows him to parlay his knowledge of biomechanics and sports medicine into skillfully watermarked ideas and principles commendably driven into his students’ psyche. His uncompromising enthusiasm for improving the podiatric health of athletes is demonstrated through his tireless engagement in the Special Olympics, consulting for the Golden State Warriors basketball team as well as working with the University of California, Berkeley as a consultant for inter-collegiate sports. He has been active with the AAPSM since he started the student chapter while at the California College of Podiatric Medicine. What Dr. Dutra brings to sports medicine is merging the podiatry profession with the community; to memorialize the podiatrist’s vast training, knowledge and experience and to encourage the sporting community to take advantage of this valuable resource.

Figure 2: What started it all: Dr. Steve Subotnik and The Running Foot Doctor

Dr. Jeff Ross, president of the Texas Podiatric Medical Association and an associate professor of surgery in the division of vascular surgery and endovascular therapy, as well as a clinical associate professor in the department of medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, brings to sports medicine a whole new perspective. He not only served as president of the AAPSM but also co-chaired the Governor’s Council on Physical Fitness, served for 12 years as a member of the Texas Department of State Health Services Council and was an esteemed member of the Texas Diabetes Council. His credentials sanction him as a national and international expert in sports medicine, biomechanics, wound healing and limb preservation. Dr. Ross’s unique contribution, therefore, is being able to fuse the disciplines and surgical principles of diabetic foot medicine with sports medicine, as there are pathways common to both that are brought to light through his extensive lecturing and vast publications. Dr. Ross, inspiring to all, is a valued and motivated partner in the creation of the new certification.


This new board certification could not have happened without the genius of Stephen B. Permison, M.D., who serves as president of Standards Based Programs, Inc. (SBP Inc.), director of the ABMSP Standards Development Organization ( and a voting member of multiple professional boards. SBP Inc. has developed and is currently developing standards, credentialing and certification programs for private industry, medical professional boards and the U.S. Government. Professional credentials, such as the ABMSP certification in sports medicine for podiatrists, assures the public that certified professionals have the proper skills to practice their designated professions with consistent medical outcomes. These intensely scrutinized policies bestow a hand of trust, allowing the public to expect quality and consistency in both in the practice of podiatric sports medicine and any products or devices that support this discipline. Dr. Permison states that “the definition of professional is quality, consistency and integrity”, exactly what his expertise imprinted into the structure of the new board certification.

“Dr. Earl Horowitz’s focus on the geriatric patient contributed powerfully to the unique quality of this new board certification.”

Dr. Victor Quijano is Chief of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Portland, Oregon. His Ph.D. and his knowledge of molecular endocrinology boosts his pursuit of comprehensiveness in the practice of podiatric sports medicine beyond the treatment of the traditional athlete. He calls for more academic and clinical inclusiveness in the discipline of podiatric sports medicine to embrace those challenges that deal with diabetes and other metabolic disorders, as well as those conditions that affect our country’s veterans. His was a needed voice in the development of this quality certification.

Dr. Earl Horowitz (Figure 3) is the president of the ABMSP and most recently became one of the first podiatrists in the United States to become board certified in Geriatric Podiatry. Dr. Horowitz is a true visionary with a passion for the health of the senior population. Preventing the geriatric patient from developing unnecessary muscle weakness, inactivity and immobility, through sports, exercise and precaution is what fuels Dr. Horowitz’s zeal for the field of podiatric sports medicine. “Maintaining foot health, balance and strength as we age are essential considerations in preventing such things as falls, which often starts a downhill spiral that can even lead to death in an elderly person. This can all be prevented by seriously addressing this part of our practice.” His focus on the geriatric patient contributed powerfully to the unique quality of this new board certification.

Figure 3: Earl Horowitz DPM, A True Visionary, President of American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry

Rita Yates, executive director of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine worked hand in hand with the Executive Director of the American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry, Joan Campbell, to formulate a meaningful advancement from Fellow of AAPSM to Board Certification by ABMSP. This was done in collaboration with the formative team which, in addition to those already discussed, also included the following doctors whose contributions were invaluable: David Jenkins, D.P.M; Diane Mitchell-Prey, D.P.M; Doug Taylor, D.P.M; Richard Blake, D.P.M; and Steven Tager, D.P.M.

To summarize, world-class talent representing a wide range of expertise, each having intense passion for their individual niche, brought this board certification to fruition. The intended and expected outcome is to support the highest level of practice in sports medicine for the modern podiatrist; and to secure the optimum level of care for their patients. This bright light will undoubtedly ensure a brilliant future for the unabridged formidable field of podiatric medicine and surgery.

In conclusion, podiatric sports medicine defines the future of podiatry because it’s an area where committed athletes are committed to staying in the game no matter what; and there is no better place to get help for those with sports-related problems of the lower extremity than a podiatric physician and surgeon who is board certified in podiatric sports medicine.